Thursday, April 13, 2006
Ind. Decisions - 7th Circuit issues one Indiana decision today
In JOAN LASKOWSKI and DANIEL M. COOK v. MARGARET SPELLINGS, Secretary of Education, and UNIVERSITY OF NOTRE DAME (SD Ind., Larry J. McKinney, Chief Judge), a 28-page opinion (with Judge Sykes' dissent beginning on p. 13), Judge Posner writes:
This is a taxpayer suit, originally to enjoin a grant by the Secretary of Education of money to the University of Notre Dame to be used for a program called Alliance for Catholic Education (ACE). A congressional appropriation for fiscal year 2000 had earmarked $500,000 to be given Notre Dame for redistribution to several other religious colleges in order to enable them to replicate the ACE program on their own campuses. Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2000, 113 Stat. 1501, 1501A-262 (Nov. 29, 1999). The complaint alleges that the grant violated the First Amendment’s prohibition against Congress’s creating religious establishments, a prohibition that the Supreme Court has interpreted to encompass any direct financial support by the government of religious activities. Notre Dame was permitted to intervene in the case in the district court as a defendant.
ACE is a program for training teachers in Catholic schools. It has three parts—professional development, community life, and spiritual growth. The first part consists of both teacher-training courses and field experience teaching at Catholic elementary and secondary schools. The second consists of the teachers’ residing in faith-based communities while doing apprentice teaching in those schools. The third is encouragement of the teachers to live and work in accordance with the tenets of the Catholic faith. Thus, the program has both secular and religious components.
The district court dismissed the suit as moot because Notre Dame had received and spent the grant, a one-time grant in an appropriations bill. It was too late to enjoin the expenditure and the likelihood of a future such earmark was too remote to warrant injunctive relief.* * *
The suit was dismissed prematurely. VACATED AND REMANDED.
SYKES, Circuit Judge, dissenting. This case is moot. The majority keeps it alive by declaring the availability of a form of restitutionary relief that was not sought by the plaintiff taxpayers and is inconsistent with the doctrine of taxpayer standing under Flast v. Cohen, 392 U.S. 83 (1968), a limited exception to the general rule that citizens lack standing to sue in federal court on generalized grievances about the conduct of government. The Supreme Court has steadfastly refused to expand Flast and has never recognized private party repayment to the Treasury as an appropriate remedy for an Establishment Clause violation in a suit based on taxpayer standing. [numerous cites omitted]
Against this backdrop, the majority holds that a recipient of a federal grant may be ordered to repay the grant as a remedy in a taxpayer lawsuit alleging that the government violated the Establishment Clause in making or insufficiently monitoring the grant. The majority achieves this result by importing the common law doctrine of restitution—a private law concept—into the public law realm of Establishment Clause litigation, vesting taxpayers with a unique sort of qui tam-like authority to sue private parties for reimbursement of the Treasury when the government is alleged to have committed an Establishment Clause violation. And the majority does this even though the claim against the government’s representative is itself moot, making the newfangled remedy against the grant recipient the sole basis for the taxpayers’ standing to pursue the Establishment Clause claim. This is a dramatic expansion of taxpayer standing, and there is no authority for it. I must respectfully dissent.
Posted by Marcia Oddi on April 13, 2006 06:17 PM
Posted to Ind. (7th Cir.) Decisions